Developers to be investigated by the CMA over the sale of leasehold homes 

It might be 20 years’ overdue but at last the CMA is launching enforcement action involving 4 leading housing developers it believes may have broken consumer protection law in relation to leasehold homes. 

As part of an ongoing investigation, the Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) investigating Barratt Developments, Countryside Properties, Persimmon Homes and Taylor Wimpey. 

The action comes after the CMA uncovered troubling evidence of potentially unfair terms concerning ground rents in leasehold contracts and potential mis-selling. It is concerned that leasehold homeowners may have been unfairly treated and that buyers may have been misled by developers. 

The CMA’s action relates to the following areas of concern: 


  • Ground rents: developers failing to explain clearly exactly what ground rent is, whether it increases over time, when increases will occur and by how much. 
  • Availability of freehold: people being misled about the availability of freehold properties. For example, the CMA found evidence that some people were told properties on an estate would only be sold as leasehold homes, when they were in fact later sold as freeholds to other buyers. 
  • Cost of the freehold: people being misled about the cost of converting their leasehold to freehold ownership. When buying their home, the CMA found evidence that some people were told the freehold would cost only a small sum, but later down the line the price had increased by thousands of pounds with little to no warning. 
  • Unfair sales tactics: developers using unfair sales tactics – such as unnecessarily short deadlines to complete purchases – to secure a deal, meaning people could feel pressured and rushed into buying properties that they may not have purchased had they been given more time. 
Unfair contract terms – ground rents  
  • The use of unfair contract terms that mean homeowners have to pay escalating ground rents, which in some cases can double every 10 years. This increase is built into contracts, meaning people can also struggle to sell their homes and find themselves trapped. 

Alongside these issues, the CMA will also be looking further into ground rent increases based on the Retail Price Index (RPI) and may take enforcement action should it find evidence of unfair practices in relation to these. In particular, the CMA is concerned about the fairness of escalating ground rent terms linked to RPI and that these are not always effectively explained by developers when discussing RPI-based ground rent with prospective homeowners. 

The CMA will also be investigating certain firms who bought freeholds from these developers and have continued to use the same unfair leasehold contract terms. 

The CMA has now written to Barratt, Countryside, Persimmon, and Taylor Wimpey outlining its concerns and requiring information. 

How the case proceeds will depend on the CMA’s assessment of the evidence. Possible outcomes include legal commitments from the companies to change the way they do business, or if necessary, the CMA could take firms to court. 

Andrea Coscelli, CMA Chief Executive, is quoted in the CMA’s press release

“It is unacceptable for housing developers to mislead or take advantage of homebuyers. That’s why we’ve launched today’s enforcement action. 

“Everyone involved in selling leasehold homes should take note: if our investigation demonstrates that there has been mis-selling or unfair contract terms, these will not be tolerated. 

“Alongside its enforcement action, the CMA is also sending letters to a number of other developers, encouraging them to review their practices to make sure they are treating consumers fairly and complying with the law.” 

For people who own, or are looking to buy, a leasehold property, the CMA has produced written and video guidance, which offers advice on a number of issues, including what people can do when faced with fees and charges they consider unjustified. 

The CMA will continue to work with the Government on its reform plans for the leasehold market, including supporting the move to ban the sale of new leasehold houses and reduce ground rents for new leases to zero. 

The Guardian quoted the Secretary of State for Housing, Robert Jenrick, who welcomed the CMA’s action and said he wanted “to see homeowners who have been affected by crippling ground rents obtain the justice and redress they deserve”. 

He said: “Shameful practices of this kind have no place in our housing market and we are going to put an end to them.” 

Or, as Zah Azeem, Partner at Scrivener Tibbatts writes, ‘He might have said, ‘It’s been shameful that for 20 years the government has done nothing to protect the purchasers of houses they thought they owned outright, but didn’t. Or leaseholders whose properties are not worth selling because the increasing ground rents make them unaffordable. 

“He might have said that, but didn’t. Shameful.” 

If you would like to discuss something related to a valuation please contact Zah via email at or call 020 8947 7040. 

People wishing to provide further evidence regarding the companies named can get in touch via email: The CMA is interested in hearing information on either leasehold houses and/or flats, referred to above as leasehold homes.